Appendices (continued)


Noun compounding determiners

dafilled with, containinglomòs da-mère - plate with food
diI. coming from, originating in
II. being (unattached) part of
III. being the result of
I. tsëkòn di-Kota - the Kotanian camel
II. tsëkòn di-borane - a camel in a herd, herd of camels
III. fàlàs di-nyawalòyne - tears of sorrow
disI. created by
II. designed by
III. done by (verbal noun + agent)
I. bogah dis-tsëkòn - camel tracks
II. time dis-Sèna - pants by Senna™
III. gualike dis-ànakòs - hunting by lions
doI. used for (tool + verbal noun)
II. applied to (tool + patient)
I. kàmpòs do-mètlike - cooking spoon
II. dinoke do-jovah - meat knife
èkhaving attribute, being characterized byilye ti-èk-sofake - one-legged man
èn(typically) used bylayitze èn-aze - army coat
èshaving some indirect relationship withargala ès-pyada - pizza killer1
gahaving a family relationship tosyone ma-ga-syone - my mother's mother
pòntèye ga-pteloone - the writer's spouse
gireversed part-of (whole + part specifier)tlomès gi-ènge - the forest's edge
bakòs gi-pwile - the rest of the group
ìsowned by, lawfully belonging toapalapòs ìs-gimòs - the farmer's house
nanamed, calleddilajaône na-Dàyàyna - queen Dayayna
òdbeing physically part of, physically attached totime òd-tlame - tree branch
oI. having main ingredient
II. primarily made of
I. yade-o-tsare - tea (litt. beverage of herbs)
II. dinoke o-age - golden knife
paI. especially for
II. to the honour of
I. arote pa-tsëkòn - camel trading market
II. are pa-dilajaône - Queen's day
pènresemblingdrive pèn-kèlge - pebble-like seed
poI. done to (verbal noun + patient)
II. forced upon (noun + patient)
mèrike po-sèrgème - eating of peaches
myowe po-tsye - end of the world
consisting of, containingborane tô-sie - herd of cows

1As in, the killer that has the habit of eating a pizza after killing his victims, or the killer that gets entrance to the house of his victims by pretending to be a pizza delivery guy, the guy that relentlessly slaughters pizzas, etc.

Scope specifying determiners (articles)

kadefinite articleka-ilye - the person
kàsindefinite articlekàs-ilye - a person, some person
question articlekè-ilye - which person
kèsmass articlekès-ilye - people
kòsrespective articlekòs-ilye - respective person
kwodemonstrative articlekwo-ilye - this/that person
ôvocative articleô-ilye - person!

Note that many of these articles can also be combined with verbs and other parts of speech.

Quantifying determiners (quantifiers)

fàysôuniversal quantfierfàysô-ilye - all people
ernôexistential quantfierernô-ilye - some people, there are people who ...

èrnô is a true existential quantifier, and does not imply a certain quantity. To further specify quantities, modifiers like myelòy, "many" can be used, e.g. ernô-ilye myelòy, "many people".

Note that the quantifiers are not restricted to nouns, but can be combined with verbs and other parts of speech.


pronounclitic formdescription
màjema1st person, inclusive
matema1st person, exclusive
tòjeta2nd person
pwela, pa3rd person animate
ône-3rd person animate, female
ale-3rd person animate, male
teete3rd person inanimate
ëwe-cataphoric (forward) reference
taleteanaphoric (backward) reference

The clitic forms are determiners when used with any part of speech other than verbs. This is only noticeable in that with verbs, the pronoun clitics do not order with any determiners that may be present (but instead always head the determiners + verb), while with nouns and other parts of speech they do. The pronoun clitic la is used with verbs only (and is thus not used as determiner), the clitic pa is a determiner, and is used in all other cases.

The pronoun clitic ma is ambiguous regarding inclusivity - it may be used for both inclusive and exclusive. ône and ale do not have a specific clitic form, but one can use the gender neutral la / pa instead. The cataphoric pronoun does not have a clitic form, the anaphoric pronoun shares the clitic form with the third person inanimate.