Nominal morphology

Kotanian nouns have a less complex morphology than verbs, due to a lack of almost any type of morphological grammatical marking. Like verbs and other word classes, nouns are marked by means of suffixes attached to the noun stem. The final compound is suffixed by the noun suffix e.

Normal nouns and bare nouns

Diachronically in the ancestral Lestárini languages various noun groups existed, each of which had a different noun suffix. In Kotane, most of these groups have begot a final e as suffix (dubbed 'normal nouns' or 'majority nouns'), but some noun groups retained their original suffix, which is in Kotane no longer recognized as such. Thus, these nouns are treated as 'bare', i.e. not having a suffix in their simple form.

TODO: order of suffixes somehere

Grammatical suffixes

Kotane has three suffixes with a dedicated grammatical function. One is optional and used for marking the direct object in case normal SOV order is changed (most notably with relative pronouns when the anaphore is direct object in a relative clause), one is used to make a noun (typically a pronoun) into a relativizer. The third one is used for marking the agent in a gerund. These suffixes are:

There is one other suffix that has a pragmatic role, the topic shift indicator. It is not grammatical per se, but is notably different enough from the non-grammatical suffixes to be treated here.

Non-grammatical suffixes

Kotanian has three groups of non-grammatical suffixes, each group consisting of two antonyms. These six suffixes are:

The first four can be reduplicated to intensify the meaning.

Determiners

(refer to determiner page)

Derivational morphology

- verbal nominalizers: see verb
- adj + oyne - -ness - no others (a nound stays a noun stays a noun...)

Grammatical suffixes

Direct object

Description

The direct object suffix is used to indicate the noun is the direct object of the sentence. It is used exclusively if the direct object has a marked position, i.e. is not located between the subject and verb or after the verb in case of a pronoun clitic subject. Its most notable use is with relative pronouns when the anaphore is direct object in a relative clause, as the relative pronoun must always lead the subclause.

Formation

The direct object suffix is os.

Examples

Relativizer

Description

The relativizing suffix is used to transform a noun (typically a pronoun) into a relativizer marking a relative clause.

Formation

The relativizing suffix is ol.

Examples

Agent of a gerund

Description

The gerund agent suffix is used to indicate the noun is the agent of a gerund.

Formation

The gerund agent suffix is om.

Examples

Topic shift indicator

Description

The topic shift indicator is used to indicate that an anaphore refers to something else than was previously the discourse topic, making that the current topic. It is typically used with pronouns, but may also be used with normal nouns and names.

Formation

The topic shift suffix is on.

Examples

Note that on is also used in the animate agentive verbal nominalizer suffix.

Non-grammatical suffixes

Diminutive

Description

The diminutive is used to indicate the noun is relatively small.

Formation

The diminutive is formed by the suffix ìst.

Examples

Augmentative

Description

The augmentative is used to indicate the noun is relatively large.

Formation

The augmentative is formed by the suffix ar.

Examples

Juventative

Description

The juventative is used to indicate the noun is relatively young or younger than something or someone else.

Formation

The juventative is formed by the suffix il.

Examples

Veterative

Description

The veterative is used to indicate the noun is relatively old or older than something or someone else.

Formation

The veterative is formed by the suffix ag.

Examples

Feminative

Description

The feminative is used with animate nouns only. It is used to indicate the human or animal is explicitly female.

Formation

The feminative is formed by the suffix ôn.

Examples

Masculative

Description

The masculative is used with animate nouns only. It is used to indicate the human or animal is explicitly male.

Formation

The masculative is formed by the suffix al.

Examples

Derivational morphology